Biograph: Prof. Simon Watts graduated from the University of Oxford in 1971, obtained an MSc and DSc from the University of Birmingham in 1972 and 2013, respectively, and a PhD from the CNAA in 1987. He was deputy Scientific Director and Technical Fellow in Thales UK until 2013 and is a Visiting Professor in the department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at University College London. He is author and co-author of over 65 journal and conference papers, a book on sea clutter and several patents. He was chairman of the international radar conference RADAR-97 in Edinburgh UK. He was appointed MBE in 1996 for services to the UK defence industry and is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, Fellow of the IET, Fellow of the IMA and Fellow of the IEEE.
Title: Radar Clutter Modelling and Exploitation
Abstract: Clutter and the need to detect targets in clutter is a significant part of radar design. The development of methods to model clutter and CFAR detection schemes for targets in clutter are still at the forefront of radar research, as evidenced by the numbers of papers on these topics in the radar journals and at the radar conferences. Models of clutter are only of value if they can be used in practice for the development of real radar systems. The tutorial will help attendees to understand the impact of clutter on radar design and performance, and how to use clutter models to develop better designs. This insight is relevant not only to radar systems engineers but also to those responsible for specifying and procuring new radar systems for operational use.
Outline of the tutorial:
The first part of the tutorial will introduce the methods used to describe radar clutter and show how physical and empirical models are developed. The second part of the tutorial will describe how clutter models are used in different ways to predict and analyse the performance of radar systems in the various stages of the life cycle of a radar system. The tutorial will particularly emphasise the modelling of sea clutter and it use in the design and development of airborne maritime surveillance radars. The third part of the tutorial will describe how clutter models are used to develop realistic simulations of radar signals. Finally, the prediction of performance using the radar range equation and the various statistical models of clutter will be described for both non-coherent and coherent radar detection processing. The main topics to be covered are listed below.
Introduction to Radar Clutter
An introduction to the characteristics used to describe clutter: reflectivity, polarisation, amplitude statistics, Doppler spectrum, and spatial correlation.
Empirical statistical models of clutter for rain, land and sea that are used in radar design.
Reflectivity, amplitude statistics, Doppler spectra, spatial correlation.
The need to be able to relate the parameters of models to environmental conditions, radar parameters and viewing geometry.
The use of clutter models in the radar life cycle
Practical insight into the use of clutter models at the various stages of the marketing, specification, design and development, testing and acceptance into service of radar systems.
The specification of required radar performance.
Radar performance prediction.
Radar signal processing design.
Measurement of radar performance in trials for customer acceptance.
The assessment of complex multifunction radar system performance through modelling and trials.
Other uses of clutter models, such as real-time operator aids, training simulators etc.
The simulation of radar clutter
Mathematical methods for the realistic simulation of coherent radar sea clutter returns over range and time.
oClutter-plus-noise samples with required ACF and amplitude statistics.
oTime-varying and range-varying Doppler spectra and coherent time-series data.
oSimulation of targets in clutter and noise.
Performance prediction in radar clutter
Analytic performance prediction in clutter under different environmental conditions, radar parameters and viewing geometries using the radar range equation.
Detection calculations in clutter plus noise using the K+noise PDF models.
oSingle pulse calculation of Pd and Pfa in clutter+noise.
oNon-coherent integration with fixed frequency and frequency agile pulses.
Performance of CA CFAR detectors in spatially correlated clutter.
Detection performance prediction in sea clutter with Doppler processing.
oFourier analysis (FFT) detectors.
oAdaptive matched filter detectors and whitening filters.
The sensitivity of performance predictions to the correct choice of models.
Monte Carlo simulation of performance where analytic methods cannot be used.